Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and the oxygen required for the metabolic process is supplied by the respiratory system. The catabolic process produces carbon dioxide which is removed by both the circulatory and respiratory system. The energy produced during the process is used for providing inputs in a mitochondrial proton pump which actually helps in powering the ATP. Metabolism consists of enzymatic reactions included in the actual -reaction pathway responsible for oxidative degradation of complex and big nutrient molecules.
Many of the energy requirements of the human body are matched by the metabolic process of carbohydrate metabolism. This molecule is the only food of the nutrient part that takes place anaerobically. The different types of carbohydrates can be classified on the basis of their behavior on hydrolysis. They are Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. The energy requirements for exercise as well as rest are carried out by the catabolic carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrient molecules are carbohydrates, lipids or proteins but we will be discussing only about carbohydrates and its reaction pathways.
Antimicrobial Agents Pharmacology
Antimicrobial agents are compounds that kill pathogenic living microorganisms. Antimicrobial agents may be of chemical nature, such as sulfonamides, or even living organisms that originate from these. Antibiotics are considered the ones derived from other living microorganisms. Antimicrobial agents, such as bacteria , fungus or virus, are often first classified according to the type of pathogen to be destroyed. Chemical families further subdivide the antimicrobial agents into drug groups like penicillins, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides.
Antimicrobial drugs are amongst the most important compounds in medicine and by their use infectious bacterial diseases have been largely abolished as a major cause of loss of life in more affluent countries. Furthermore, organisms that have acquired resistance to a particular class of antimicrobial agents are insensitive to the action of similarly structured drugs.
Functions of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates serve as the primary energy source. According to unique roles they play in the human body such as removing or reducing ketosis, breakdown of body protein, loss of cations and dehydration, they are also essential in diet.Therefore, carbohydrates are important as they are precursors to carbohydrate derivatives which are actively involved in processes of human metabolism such as fertilization, immune systems, disease production and blood clotting.
As important as carbohydrates are in humans and plants, they are equally important functional ingredients in food products. It is the most abundant class of organic compounds. They are essential for human health because they are short term. Carbohydrates present in food products may vary from small simple sugars to very complex polysaccharides such as those found in plant cell walls.
Carbohydrates are structural components of animals and plants. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for animals. Energy derived from carbohydrates by oxidation is used for different purposes. Carbohydrates have the potential to modify and enhance the rheological properties of food items favourably to make them more attractive and to increase their shelf life.